After the Renaissance theater that started in Italy, it has managed to show its influence to the whole world and especially to England. The plays of important figures such as Plautus, Terentius and Seneca are being read again.
Renaissance theater, which tries to resemble classical theater in every sense, at first escaped too much normality and adopted the rules of classical plays as a guide and remained loyal to Aristotle’s rules of 3 unions, namely time, place and event unity. Thus, it was not able to produce very vibrant products and not be a source of much interest, but there were still some writers influenced by the comedies that Plautus wrote, which gave the Italian Renaissance theater important local characters and a national language.
With Commedia dell’Arte, the Italian theater became more famous. This genre was a living folk theater that defied certain rules, times and events. Commedia dell’Arte’s innovation was that it was based on community play. The actors, who constantly worked together and played the same role for a very long time, gave extraordinary performances and fascinated people. Although there were scenarios in the games, the players could change the places they wanted in their part as they wanted. Certain types that the whole theater will use have emerged thanks to Commedia dell’Arte.
While the Italian theater aimed to produce works that were far from literature in these periods, the Spanish theater wanted to literalize the theater again. He gave the best examples of his own theaters during this period. Spanish theater even took its place in history as the Golden Age of Spanish literature for this period. Spain, unaffected by the reform, continued to religious theaters, prepared one-act plays, and continued to produce what other countries called ritual plays, which were free from waves, passed through with religious plays. Also, Spanish theater was different from Italian theater in that it did not limit itself in any way to the rules of classicism. It featured emotion, lyricism, passionate acts, and produced a lot of works in the style of swordplay, an original Spanish genre dealing with middle-class customs and intrigues. This made it freer and set it apart from the Italian Renaissance theater.
The influence of the Renaissance theater in England was felt later, and the Renaissance period of England covered the Elizabethan period, and during this period, not only in theater, but in general, it was the years when literature was established in the original British tradition. In fact, British theater was open to opposing influences during this period; On the one hand, some religious celebrations were banned to counteract the influence of the Protestant church, which led to the decline of mystery and morality games. On the other hand, the palace wanted to use the theater to consolidate British national identity. Against all of this, the emancipatory effect of the intellectual, moral and religious conflicts in Europe and the aggravation of the conflicts towards the end of the 16th century, the theater also produced plays that reflected this tense, innovative mood. The British theater managed to create an art type that transcends the boundaries of the palace theater and can appeal to all segments of the society by combining the inheritance of its original Medieval tradition with the inventions of Europe.
The first theaters in England were established during the Elizabethan period, starting in 1576, and anyone could watch plays by Marlowe, Shakespeare, Beaumant, and Fletcher. These early theaters were a little more developed than before. Within an open-topped structure, the stage consisted of a raised wooden platform and rows on three sides for the audience to sit. The front of the stage was empty and so close to the stage that the audience and the actors could be exchanged easily, which was more than the Italian theater. In addition, even if the theaters were operated with the support of a noble person during the Renaissance theater, because the tickets were much cheaper, people from all walks of life could come and watch the play. At the same time, another difference from Italian theater was that there were no actresses. Most of the time, female roles were played by young male actors.
In the theater world, a lot of works were produced during this period and the theater was more diversified. Although there were some problems, such as the banning of theaters by the puritan group, writers and audiences who did not give up their love for theater somehow went to theaters that were secretly opened outside the city and they were holding tightly to these theaters.